Your Complete Guide to The Throat Chakra
The throat chakra is your body’s voice. It acts as a pressure valve that allows the energy from all your other chakras to be expressed completely and wholly. Learn more about this chakra by reading below.
The Meaning of the Throat Chakra
The throat chakra is the 5th chakra in the overall chakra system. In Sanskrit, it is known as the Vishudda chakra which means “purification” or “pure”
The throat chakra is the center for communication and self-expression. It is believed to have a strong connection to your thyroid and parathyroid gland. Take note that the throat chakra is considered the 1st of the higher and spiritual chakra. It is dubbed the soul’s gate and is the ultimate link between your heart and your head.
This chakra is associated with the element of sound. Its vibration is said to be felt not just in your ears but also through the whole body. This makes the throat chakra an important instrument of communication and expression.
It is your medium of expression and how you receive the messages of the world. This chakra allows you to receive communication from the external world and accept it into yourself in a way that can be easily understood.
The chakra also allows you to process information that you receive from other chakras and express them to the world in a positive and healthy way. It allows you to be understood and for things to be released in a useful way.
What is the Symbol for the Throat Chakra?
The throat chakra symbol consists of a circle with 16 petals and a crescent moon with a circle inside. In addition, this chakra may also have a symbol of a circle with a triangle that’s pointing downward and inscribed in another circle.
What is the Color of the Throat Chakra?
The throat chakra is represented by the color blue. Carrying the color energy of the sky and the sea, the chakra marks the beginning of emotion and life.
It brings faith, trust, respect, and patience. Not only that, but it also lends you focus whenever you need it. It teaches you how to act more responsibly, become sincere, and be trustworthy.
Its color can help you accept the life that you have, remove fears, enhance creativity, better expression of yourself, soothe energies, seek forgiveness, and develop patience.
Not only that, but they are great for curbing tempers, making you more cheerful, dependable, and friendly. A lighter blue color is also said to deal with emotional grief and ease the grief.
Where is the Throat Chakra Located?
As its name implies, the throat chakra is found at the throat level. However, it is important to know that it is multidimensional and is often represented as going outside the front of the front and inside the back at an upward angle.
The chakra is often associated with the pharyngeal plexi and branchial system. It is connected to the pharynx, palate, jaws, tongue, and mouth. Furthermore, it is also connected to the shoulders and neck. The thyroid gland is also deeply associated with the throat chakra, regulating the conversion of energy in the body via metabolism, growth, and temperature.
Characteristics and Traits of the Throat Chakra
The throat chakra is associated with certain psychological and behavioral characteristics. It represents expression, allowing you to speak out and express your personal truth. This chakra signifies both non-verbal and verbal communication as well as external and internal communication.
Not only that but the throat chakra, as the first spiritual chakra can help connect you with the divine or etheric realm as well as the subtle realms of your spirit and intuitive abilities. It has the ability to provide you the inclination to project and create your ideas and blueprints into reality.
Furthermore, the throat chakra also helps you realize your life purpose and it ensures that you can have a good sense of timing. The throat chakra is all about expressing yourself and filling you with purpose and truth in your life.
What is most unique about the throat chakra is that it has a strong natural connection with your sacral chakra, which is your center of creativity and emotions. This chakra mainly works to bring an emphasis on better expression and projection of your creativity and feelings to the world, according to your authenticity and perfect form.
In addition, this chakra also helps connect you to your inner spirit and soul. Due to its location, the chakra is often seen as a bottleneck in terms of energy movement in your body. Sitting right before your upper chakras, the throat chakra greatly helps in aligning your reality with your vision.
Moreover, this chakra is responsible for releasing any pressure that may be affecting your heart chakra, the next chakra below it. The chakra is connected with your etheric body, holding the blueprint or template of other dimensions in your body. It is a significant reference point that aligns the energies via the chakra system.
What Causes an Overactive and Unbalanced Throat Chakra?
A malfunctioning or unbalanced chakra can happen in several ways. You will be bound to feel it right away since parts of your body will start to function poorly.
One of the most common causes of an unbalanced throat chakra is fear. When you’re fearful, you can’t seem to express yourself efficiently. This can cause an imbalance in your throat chakra.
In addition, an unbalanced chakra may also be caused by too many emotions. Think of the throat chakra as a bridge between your head and heart. In fact, it literally sits between your heart and head at the base of your throat.
The brain and the heart are in constant communication with each other. Everything that they communicate with goes through the throat. And this is probably why you feel your throat constrict when you become too emotional. You get that sudden feeling of a lump in your throat when you try to hold back your tears or when you get too nervous. This is where your voice resonates in order to express your emotions and thoughts.
You will start to experience difficulties and challenges developing in your throat, upper chest, shoulders, head, and neck when there is a blockage in the throat chakra. Such problems can relate to any issues in the jaw, ears, thyroid, throat, neck, teeth, and mouth. Also, there can be issues in the neurological system that may manifest as headaches.
Hoarseness coughs and tickles in the throat are some of the more common physical symptoms of an issue in your throat chakra. In addition, an unbalanced throat chakra can also trigger autoimmune conditions. Sometimes you can also feel or see the tension from the imbalance in your shoulders which can also manifest in your arms and hands as well.
Opening up your throat chakra is critical in releasing the energies from your lower chakras. A balanced throat chakra can send energies from your sacral chakra via creative expression. Not only that, but it also helps in releasing the energy of the solar plexus chakra, releasing any active or too much energy buildup in there.
A throat chakra that’s out of balance be caused by numerous problems on your lower chakras. In addition, an unbalanced throat chakra is said to affect your survival abilities. It may manifest as suppressed emotions and a lack of willpower and drive. You also become more anxious and can have a hard time expressing who you are.
In addition, an overactive chakra can make you gossip, manipulate, be dishonest or be sarcastic in order to protect yourself. Such imbalances or blockages can result in more emotional or physical problems affecting the proper functioning of your other chakras.
Meanwhile, an overactive chakra occurs when you let your heart or emotion lead. When you have a balanced throat chakra, it promotes clear and concise communication. You will have no problems expressing yourself and find it easy, to be honest. However, when it becomes overactive, the opposite happens.
You can’t help but speak maliciously and rudely. You also have the tendency to look down on other people. You become very critical of even the tiniest details. Most of the time, an innocent response can make it feel rude or intentionally scathing to you. In addition, you have the tendency to speak negatively of others and even to yourself, to the point that it becomes a form of verbal abuse.
Symptoms of Blocked or Unbalanced Throat Chakra
A blocked throat chakra can significantly affect your capability to communicate since you fear being ridiculed or judged. When there is something blocking this chakra, you will have a hard time communicating and expressing your truth clearly, effectively, and honestly.
In addition, someone with a blocked throat chakra is often weak, quiet, scared, and introverted. Such blockages may manifest as manipulation, unreliability, and difficulty in putting your emotions into words.
When your throat chakra is off, you also find it very hard to relax. You can’t speak your truth and end up holding back on expressing your desires and needs. You will long realize your dreams and goals but will have a hard time getting there.
A blocked or unbalanced throat chakra means that your energy flow is halted and may lead to physical symptoms that affect your mouth, throat, head, and neck. It is not uncommon to feel physical issues such as neck pain, sore throat, headache, and hoarseness when the energy flow from these chakras becomes disrupted.
Furthermore, a blocked or overactive throat chakra can also manifest non-physical signs that can affect you on different levels from your spirit and soul to your aura to your thoughts and emotions. You become painfully shy and anxious. There will also be an inconsistency in your actions and words as well as halting the flow of your creativity.
Not only that, but you also tend to be detached and stubborn. You become indifferent to the people and to the world. It also makes you become manipulative, arrogant, deceptive, and domineering. It also makes you feel stoic, fearful, and quiet. Also, it creates feelings of insecurity, shyness, and anxiety. The very thought of speaking in public may cause you to sweat or get nervous.
This can cause a negative impact on your professional and personal life. You tend to avoid social situations and become distrustful of your inner voice.
The List of Crystal Stones for the Throat Chakra
The Vishuddha is your center of self-expression and communication. Its blue color allows the energy from the rest of your chakras to be expressed.
When your throat chakra becomes blocked or unbalanced, it can become difficult to communicate. It will be hard for you to be true to your desires and feelings and may even lead to frustration.
One of the best ways to heal and balance an overactive or underactive throat chakra is by using healing crystals. Here are the top crystal stones for the throat chakra.
Aquamarine comes from the Latin term “water of the sea”. This beautiful blue stone is said to be the treasure of the mermaids and was often carried by ancient sailors in order to protect them against drowning.
With its cooling blue shade and strong association with the sea, aquamarine is probably the most powerful crystal for activating, stimulating, healing, and cleansing your throat chakra. Dubbed the Stone of Courage, this stone also removes fearfulness and encourages you to speak your truth without fear.
Although anyone can greatly benefit from the energies of the aquamarine crystal, its ability to overcome the fear of speaking while encouraging clarity of thinking makes it the most suitable ally for speakers and teachers.
Not only that, but the aquamarine crystal can also aid in spiritual connection. So, if you need to balance and open this energy center, in need of peaceful energy or increasing honest and peaceful self-expression, then the aquamarine crystal is a great option.
The beautiful turquoise crystal has been used in pieces of jewelry for thousands of years. It’s said to harness esoteric energies and has been the talisman for shamans, kings, and warriors. Even to this day, Native American Indians still believe in their spiritual healing powers and use this beautiful stone.
The turquoise crystal emits a potent, yet gentle energy which offers protection. Not only that, but it also helps in restoring your confidence in order to speak honestly. It’s said that turquoise also opens all your chakras and facilitates clear communication between them.
In addition, it is believed that placing a turquoise crystal on your throat is said to help in releasing your old vows. It is also important to note that the turquoise crystal is another great stone for courage and imparts leadership qualities, mainly in communicating innovative ideas and bringing a team together.
The lighter blue energies of the celestite represent the ethereal heaven. In its essence, this stone can raise your energies and makes it possible for you to commune with angelic beings and spirit guides of the divine realms.
Not only that, but this beautiful and soothing stone can also help in stimulating your extrasensory perception and your inner sense of knowing. It also helps stimulate clairvoyant communication. This should help improve your ability to communicate with spirits and divine beings while also engendering the strength of the mind for increased learning ability while in the spiritual realm.
Using these stones, you can heal your throat chakra, connect with your other higher chakras and align your spiritual truths, gaining the confidence to express them openly to the universe.
Lapis lazuli with its deep blue shade is another potent stone that can help in releasing issues in your throat area, particularly repressed anger of frustrations. As a matter of fact, this crystal is one of the best stones for anger and is often beneficial if you ever find yourself in a difficult situation where you need to express yourself in a stressful situation.
This stone has the ability to energize, activate and balance your throat chakra while encouraging self-awareness. Dubbed the Stone of Truth, the lapis lazuli can promote truthfulness and honesty when writing or speaking. This makes it a highly beneficial crystal for executives and journalists. Furthermore, this gemstone is said to help enhance your creativity as well as express honest thoughts and feelings to partners and friends.
Speaking of friends, the lapis lazuli is considered to be the Stone of Friendships. It is brilliant for enhancing both existing and new friendships via honest and effective communication.
As its name implies, the Angelite is a powerful angelic stone that allows you to speak your truth with kindness and compassion. It is a potent stone that can help you express light and love, facilitating general awareness and balancing your parathyroid and thyroid glands.
Spiritually speaking, the Angelite stone can be used to unblock all energetic pathways for enhanced communication with angels and guides. It is also believed to heighten your spiritual skills such as astral traveling, clairvoyance, and telepathy. This makes it an excellent stone for spiritual teachers and healers.
From the Greek term “Kyanos” which means “deep blue”, blue kyanite is probably the most popular in the Kyanite family.
A brilliant all-around crystal, the blue kyanite has the ability to align all your seven main chakras. However, its blue shade makes it specifically beneficial for opening your throat chakra and encouraging self-expression. This is especially useful when dealing with negotiations or disagreements.
A unique property of blue kyanite, or any kyanite, is that I do not hold negative energies. Thus, it never needs cleaning. Whether you need verbal confidence for acting, a strong voice for speaking in public, or greater efficiency and clarity when writing, blue kyanite is a wonderful crystal to try, especially for meditation.
Chrysocolla is another potent and popular crystal stone for healing your throat chakra. It has the ability to instantly reduce emotional turmoil thanks to its calming energies while also bringing strengthening properties. By gaining stability and improving your inner strength with gentle powerfulness, this stone can help you get rid of stress and fear.
This potent stone is also said to help you in all areas of self-expression and communication. It enhances the feminine Goddess energy in you, allowing you to experience deeper levels of peace, love, and compassion so you can communicate from the heart and genuinely express yourself.
This beautiful green-blue stone can take negative emotions and open a blocked throat chakra so that energies from other chakras can flow freely. In addition, it also offers the perfect blend of practicality and creativity while benefiting your physical throat and thyroid.
Derived from the Latin term “sodaltas” which means “comrades” the sodalite stone is another great stone for promoting friendship, particularly in the business landscape.
Dubbed as the Writer’s or Poet’s Stone, the sodalite stone is said to help you express your thoughts and ideas more clearly while also enhancing your creativity. This makes it an excellent choice for performers and artists who wish to promote creativity, communication, and confidence.
Sodalite also features uniquely strong vibrations that can assist you during public speaking. It helps in relieving anxiety or stress, allowing you to effectively share your ideas and thoughts with your audience. Whether you want to enhance your communication skill in general or stimulate untamed creativity, the sodalite crystal is a great option.
Another great stone for the throat chakra, the blue chalcedony is a powerful tool for communicating with the spirit. It encourages speaking in the language of the light and the divine realm.
Not only that, but this crystal can also stimulate telepathy as well as all communications with the divine and invisible realms. It assists in the remembrance of your past lives and articulating your regained knowledge and wisdom.
In addition, blue chalcedony is also said to enhance your communication skills while teaching you to hold your tongue and think twice before speaking ill of others. It should help you express yourself in a clear and calm manner, allowing you to resolve issues and misunderstandings with less chaos and arguments.
Dubbed as the Speaker’s Stone, the blue chalcedony crystal is also useful in resolving arguments and encouraging loving communication. This stone will help you be more conscious about the impact of your words or even the tone of your voice on someone else.
Blue Lace Agate
The pale blue energies of the blue lace agate can heal, stimulate and activate your throat chakra. Its soothing energies are said to help neutralize spoken anger as well as counteract feelings caused by being judged. Not only that but it is also said to help encourage the expression of feelings and thoughts.
Like many other stones for the throat chakra, the blue lace agate offers a soothing energy that removes any blockages in your throat and brings positive energy.
Spiritually speaking, the blue lace agate is closely associated with angelic and divine energies. Thus, it allows n outflow of positivity and the expression of your highest spiritual truths.
The name Azurite comes from the term “azure” which means sky blue. It was thought of as a potent psychic stone by the Egyptians. The Romans and Greeks revered its healing powers. Although this beautiful tone is not as much used in pieces of jewelry due to its soft compositions, fading in sunlight or turning black when exposed to heat, this stone is mainly used for décor and meditation. In fact, it is good to gaze at when meditation and makes a good pendulum.
The vibrant and bright blue shade of Azurite is primarily used for the healing of your third eye chakra. However, since it shares the same blue shades, it is also suitable for stimulating the throat chakra. It is useful when verbalizing past life experiences or assisting a long-standing communication issue.
Not only that, but this stone is also a wonderful ally if you want to keep your head clear. It is also brilliant and beneficial in stressful and high-tension situations such as exams, job interviews, and conferences.
Blue quartz is a unique crystal for your throat chakra. It helps improve your communication and self-expression through organization, order, and balance. This stone can bring you tranquility and peace by promoting a focused and composed mind.
Disagreements are dissolved and removed in the presence of blue quartz, as do misunderstandings and negativity. Not only that, but it also improves your ability to bargain and come up with a balanced solution with others.
Not only that, but this stone can also open up communication between your lower and upper chakras. This allows you to express your creativity and spirituality. Also, it helps in reducing fear, depression, stubbornness, and anxiety with its soothing and potent frequency.
The blue apatite is a wonderfully deep stone both in density and color. It is a superb ally for opening and healing your throat chakra. Not only that, but it also resonates with the highest spiritual guidance. This makes it a powerful crystal to add to your collection.
Blue apatite provides various benefits for your throat chakra. For one, it has the dual effect of dispelling negative energies while stimulating your personal truth. This makes it a great choice for your mental and emotional well-being.
Meanwhile, this beautiful stone can also help get your point across. Even during stressful or tense situations, you can express your thoughts and ideas effectively and positively. This helps prevent misunderstanding or even causes more heated arguments.
Furthermore, the blue apatite is also known to promote social ease and openness. Spiritually, this stone is even said to help extend your awareness of past-life experiences while also connecting you to the divine and spiritual realm. Lastly, this beautiful stone is also said to help enhance the energies and effects of other crystal stones.
The amazonite crystal occurs in a color range of greenish blue to green to bluish-green with inclusions and streaks of white feldspar or quartz. Like the aquamarine stone, the Amazonite crystal is considered to be a Stone of Courage.
Taking energy from the brave Amazon women, the amazonite is considered to be one of the best throat chakras. It can promote harmony with its soothing blueish-green color. Thereby, it helps in reducing fear, anxiety, aggression, anger and worry. In addition, the amazonite is also said to help remove your fear of judgment while boosting your confidence and self-esteem.
Not only that, but it also has the ability to help you express yourself while encouraging you to dig a little deeper about yourself. Thus, it is often dubbed the Stone of Truth. Moreover, the energy of this stone is said to bring balance to your emotions. With the help of this stone, you can experience harmony and loving communication in your relationships.
Blue Tiger’s Eye
Although brown and black is the more common color for a tiger’s eye crystal, it is also available in shades of blue that strongly resonates with your throat chakra.
This soothing stone emits peaceful energies that can help dissolve tension and stress as well as fear and anger. It helps in improving your ability to better understand your emotion and setting aside your fears. From there, you can heal your emotional wounds and find the best solutions for your issues.
In addition, the blue tiger’s eye is also said to empower you to speak from a place of your personal power. This stone can help you communicate clearly and speak with ease. This way, you can enjoy harmony and loving energies in your relationships. Also, it helps create a balance between your mental focus and emotions, inspires creative problem-solving, and boosts intuition.
The rich blue rays of sapphire are ideal for utilizing and awakening your throat and third eye chakras. With these two chakras working in unison, you not only have the capacity for inner vision but also get the focus and the ability to communicate your vision to other people in the most effective way.
In addition, the blue sapphire also promotes honest and clear communication with your loved ones while enhancing wisdom and mental acuity. This stone can help you voice out your feelings, thoughts, and emotions in a clear and mindful way. This helps prevent heated arguments and misunderstandings with your partner.
Furthermore, blue sapphire is also highly beneficial for swollen glands and the thyroid. It is also suitable for treating problems related to communication and speech.
How to Open Your Throat Chakra with Crystal Stones?
Although the above-mentioned crystals for your throat chakra can help balance or activate the Vishuddha, there are several ways you can use them. Here are some of the most common tips for making the most out of your healing crystals.
- Since the throat chakra is located on your throat, it is best to wear your favorite throat chakra crystal in jewelry around your neck in order to have close proximity to the chakra and enhance its specific properties.
- You can also place a throat chakra crystal around your office or home (particularly in the bedroom) in order to enhance and encourage honest and heartfelt communication.
- Enrich your soothing meditation practice by placing a blue crystal of your choice on your throat chakra or just holding it in your hands. You can focus on releasing all the anger and speaking your inner truth.
- You can place a blue throat chakra stone under your pillow or beside your bed in order to promote self-expression, influence creativity or encourage relaxation for a peaceful and good night’s sleep.
- Crystal singing bowls can be a great option to open your underactive throat chakra.
- Crystal essences and elixirs are another excellent way to harness the powerful energies of your throat chakra.
Other Ways To Open and Heal Your Throat Chakra
If you are struggling with an overactive or blocked throat chakra or just want to know other methods on how to heal and open your chakra other than crystal healing, then here are several practices you can try.
Incorporate Blue Into Your Life
The throat chakra is associated with the color blue. Thus, it is best to think of blue or incorporate this soothing color into your life.
You can visualize a soothing and beautiful blue light. Picture its cooling energies at the base of your throat and other locations of your throat chakra that you are having issues with.
Think of this soothing color as you inhale good health and in cleansing the aura. Visualize this color filling up the areas in your throat and releasing all the accumulated tension and stress. You will soon feel a warming or cooling sensation and that is perfectly normal.
Other than that, you should also consider adding blue-colored items into your life. You can wear blue outfits or decorate your space with blue items. In addition, you can lounge outdoors and bask in the blue sky. You can also spend a day at the beach, swimming in the wide, blue ocean.
Sing a Song
Exercising your vocal cords through singing can help in cleansing the throat chakra. And it doesn’t matter whether you can hit the right tune or not or whether you do it in the shower or in front of people.
You can simply sing your heart out in order to release any blockages in this chakra or to stimulate it.
Do Neck Stretches
Neck stretches can help open the area around your neck and assist in balancing your throat chakra. Experts recommend doing simple neck stretches in order to prevent the buildup of tension and stress in your neck or throat area.
In order to do this stretch, you simply drop your chin towards the chest. Then, tilt your head to the right. Keeping your shoulders relaxed, try to tilt your head so that the right ear is as close to your right shoulder as possible. You can feel a stretch along the left side of your neck. You can hold this stretch for 30 – 60 seconds.
After that, simply move your head back down to your chest and repeat the steps on the opposite side.
Hydrating yourself and making sure that you drink enough water every day can also assist in the healing of your throat chakra.
Also, it is important to think about the other things you ingest and drink. Think about their impact on your throat and on the whole body in general.
Try a Massage
You may also consider getting a massage. After all, everyone feels a lot better after a soothing and thorough shoulder and neck massage. The results can be instantaneous and may affect both the emotional and physical aspects of your health.
Focus on Your Breathing
A breathing technique known as “lion’s breath” is believed to be quite beneficial for your throat chakra. It is thought to help in releasing stress, stimulating your chest and throat area, and getting rid of toxins.
In order to practice this breath, you simply need to inhale through the nose. Open your mouth and eyes wide. Then, stick out your tongue and “roar” your breath out— the breath that you exhale should be audible and loud like a lion’s roar.
Try Yoga Poses
Releasing any tension or stress in the areas of your body near a chakra can help in restoring the flow of energy in that region. This is why yoga poses like Fish, Plow, or Shoulder stand, which eases tension in your neck muscles, are most suitable for your throat chakra.
Speak With Love and Compassion
If you are guilty of having a sharp tongue and always strive to release your words with thoughtfulness and kindness, then you will surely have an unbalanced chakra.
You need to work through these negative traits and emotions including your hurt, resentment, and guilt. This should work wonders in order to bring back your energy and balance in your throat chakra.
Consider talking openly and staying honest when dealing with other people in different situations. Whether you’re dissatisfied or happy with what is going on in your life, it pays to be conscious of your thoughts and actions words.
Another option for unblocking a throat chakra is reiki healing. A Reiki healing session can benefit not only your throat but all other chakras of the body. However, if you have an unbalanced throat chakra, then a reiki practitioner should spend more time on your throat if they feel that you may benefit from extra energy being sent to that region.
Your throat chakra always responds well to meditation. Entering a state of meditation can help you realize just how the overactive nature of blockage in your throat chakra first came to be. You will be shown the kinds of feelings and thoughts or even your past life experiences that might have thrown your throat chakra into chaos.
To meditate for your throat chakra, you simply need to incorporate the color blue into your practice or place crystal healing stones on your throat.
Work With Bija Mantra
Sound vibrations are ancient tools that are believed to tap into energetic currents that exist in the universe. The bija mantra is a one-syllable sound that, when said aloud, can help in balancing and activating the energy of a specific chakra. Each chakra has a specific bija mantra with the throat chakra being “ham”.
You can chant “ham” out loud to heal this chakra. When chanting this sound, use a comfortable and natural tone for your voice. As you breathe out, let the sound slowly roll out for the duration of your exhale.
Align Your Neck With Your Spine
It is crucial that you keep your neck in line with your spine in order to avoid neck stress, strain, and hyperextension. This is particularly important if you’re doing yoga. The repetition of some of the yoga poses such as backbends can increase your chances of neck strain or hyperextension, causing an interrupted flow of energy through your throat chakra.
Keep a Journal
Journal writing is a great tool for cultivating the capacity of listening to yourself.
Being quiet and doing freewriting can help connect your heart with your mind, where the throat chakra loves between the mind and the body. You can write down your feelings and thoughts to help express how you feel.
The throat chakra is all about your freedom of expression— your purpose in life and your personal truth. It brings an emphasis on projecting and expressing your creativity into this world. It represents how you express your will as well as balance your emotional, physical, and mental intentions.
The gift of this chakra is your capability to accept your own uniqueness and express your genuine voice when communicating. It helps you in releasing your emotions and thoughts into the world without fear of being misjudged or hated.